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CV of William Zev Rymer

Personal details

Surname: Rymer
Forenames: William Zev 

Sensory Motor Performance Program
Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago
Northwestern University
345 E Superior Street
60611 Chicago, IL, USA
Tel: 312-238-3919


M.D., 1972   Melbourne University Medical School, Melbourne, Australia 
1967 - 1972  Predoctoral training, Monash University, Australia, Advisor: Robert Porter, Ph.D. 
Ph.D., 1973  Monash University, Australia 
1972 - 1974  Postdoctoral training, NIH, Advisor: Robert Burke, M.D.

Professional History

  • 1990-present President of the Rehabilitation Institute Research Corporation
  • 1989-present John G. Searle Professor of Research in Rehabilitation, Research Director of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago
  • 1989-present Director, Medical Biomechanics Program, Northwestern University Medical School
  • 1987-present Professor Physiology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University
  • 1987-present Director, Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago
  • 1986-present Research Biologist, VA Chicago Healthcare System, Chicago, IL
  • 1986-1990 Research Director, Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery and Neuroresearch (CINN)
  • 1984-1987 Associate Professor, Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University
  • 1983-1987 Associate Professor, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine, Northwestern University
  • 1981-1987 Associate Professor, Physiology, Northwestern University
  • 1978-1981 Assistant Professor Physiology/Neurology, Northwestern University Medical and Dental Schools
  • 1976-1977 Assistant Professor, Neurosurgery and Physiology, SUNY, Syracuse
  • 1974-1976 Research Associate, Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
  • 1971-1974 Fogarty Fellow, Laboratory of Neural Control, NIH, NINCDS
  • 1967-1970 Clinical Assistant Neurologist, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne
  • 1967-1970 Clinical Assistant Neurologist, Prince Henry's Hospital Melbourne
  • 1967-1970 Monash Graduate Scholar, Department of Physiology, Monash University
  • 1964-1966 Medical Registrar, (Chief Resident) Monash University, Department of Medicine Melbourne
  • 1962-1963 Resident, Internal Medicine, Prince Henry's Hospital, Melbourne

Honors and Other Special Scientific Recognition

Honors Graduate Medicine, 1962. 

Fogarty International Fellow NIH, 1971-1974, Laboratory of Neural Control, NINCDS. 

Chairman, Engineering Foundation Conference "Biomechanics of Movement" Henniker, New Hampshire, June, 1979. 

Invited instructor, Cold Spring Harbour, June, 1980, 1981, Mammalian CNS course. 

Chairman NIH Special Study Section (8 occasions) 

Member, Musculoskeletal And Orthopedics Study Section, NIH, 1983-1987, 

Member, GRM Study Section : 1994-98, Chair (designate) 1999-2001 

Editorial Boards:

  • J. of Neurophysiology 1984-1987,
  • Motor Control (associate Editor) 1996- present,
  • IEEE Transactions in Rehab Engineering 1999 -
  • Editor-in-Chief, IEEE Transactions in Neural Systems and Rehab. Engineering (January 2001)

Special Reviewer:
  • NIH Study Section: Applied Physiology and Orthopedics, 1979, 1988
  • Program Project Study Section, 1981, 1983, 1988, 1989, 1990. 1991, 1992
  • Neurology B Study Section, 1982, 1988
  • NIH Fundamental Neurosciences - Prosthetics Contract Review
  • NIGMS Program Project Special Review Group
  • Small Business Administration, National Institute on Aging,
  • National Science Foundation
  • VA Merit Review
  • Chairman NIH Special Study Sections (8 occasions)

Invited Participant, National Academy of Sciences delegation to Bulgaria, 1985 

Member , Scientific Advisory Board, Spinal Cord Research Foundation, Paralyzed Veterans of America, 1989 - 1995 

Co-Chair, NIH Task Force Panel on" Neurophysiological Dysfunction" in Rehabilitation Science 

Co-Chair(with Hunter Peckham) : NIH Bioengineering Consortium, 1998, Rehabilitation Section 

  • University of Michigan Neurology Department Program Project Grant, 1982, 1983.
  • Warner Lambert, Michigan on Physiology of Spasticity 1984
  • Midwest Biolaser Institute (MBLI) 1984-88
  • VA Hines - Rehab. Engineering, Spasticity. 1985
  • Chicago Institute for Neurosurgery 1984-89
  • FES Program, Cleveland 1995, 1996
  • VA - Palo Alto Rehabilitation Engineering Program 1998 - present
  • Neuromotion Inc. 1997, 1998
  • Allelix Corporation 1997, 1998
  • Applied Resources Corp., Rehabilitation Technologies Division, Phase II proposal 1999 - present
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2000 to present
  • Advisory Board for Drexel University for NIDRR/ERC on Cognitive Technologies, 2003-present


    1973 - present   Fellow Royal, Australasian College of Physicians 
    1967   Member, Royal Australasian College of Physicians 
    1973-present   Society for Neuroscience 
    1989-present   American Society Biomechanics 
    1984-present   American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine 
    1993-present   IEEE, EMBS 
    1993-present   Association of Academic Physiatrists

Research Interests

Movement control in man and other animals. 
Pathophysiology and recovery in central neurological disorders in man, including stroke and spinal cord Injury.

Research Support (Current)

    HD07418 (Rymer) 5/1/07 - 4/30/12 
    Pathophysiology and Rehabilitation of Neural Dysfunction 
    The goal of this project is to prepare clinician-scientists and Ph.D. scientists for leadership roles in rehabilitation research. 

    H133P040007 (Rymer) 5/1/04 - 4/30/09 
    U.S. Department of Education 
    Rehabilitation Science of Engineers and Basic Scientists: An Advanced Training Program 
    The goal of this project is to provide training opportunities for engineers and basic scientists in the field of rehabilitation. 

    HD133E020724-03 (Rymer) 10/01/07 - 9/31/12 
    U.S. Dept. of Education/NIDRR 
    Machines Assisting Recovery From Stroke (MARS) 
    Proposal to develop and test the efficacy of devices to facilitate rehabilitation in individuals with hemiplegia subsequent to stroke. A total of approximately 300 subjects with stroke will participate in five different projects, each examining the effects of using machines in rehabilitative training. 

    R24 HD959721-01 (Rymer) 9/23/05 - 5/31/10 
    Engineering for Neurologic Rehabilitation 
    The purpose of this infrastructure research grant is to expand and disseminate the core expertise developed in engineering and neuroscience developed in the current R24 regional research network, through dedicated websites, presentations at national and international meetings, and short and long-term sabbatical opportunities, didactic courses, hand-on workshops, and symposia. 

    H133G030204 (Beer) 10/1/06 - 9/30/09 
    Dept of Education/NIDRR 
    Three-Dimensional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Arm Function Following Stroke 
    The goal of this study is to develop and evaluate the Multi-Axis Cartesian-based Arm Rehabilitation Machine (MACARM), a new device for the quantitative assessment and rehabilitation of three dimensional arm movements following stroke. 

    R01 AR049837-02 (Dhaher) 8/1/04 - 4/30/09 
    Reflex Contributions to Joint Stability 
    The project studies the role of joint afferents in promoting mediolateral stability of the human knee joint, and to characterize the input-output properties of joint afferents-based reflexes in a well-controlled environment.


    Rymer WZ: A Comparison Between Muscle Spindle Receptors And Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract Cells. Thesis submitted to the faculty of Medicine, Monash University, 1973. 

    Burke RE, Rymer WZ Walsh JV: Functional specialization in the motor unit population of cat medial gastrocnemius muscle. In Stein RB (ed): Control of Posture and Locomotion. New York: Plenum Press, 1973. 

    Rymer WZ. Walsh, JV: Effects of secondary muscle spindle afferent discharge on extensor motoneurons in the decerebrate cat. In Stein RB (ed): Control on Posture and Locomotion. New York: Plenum Press; 1973. 

    Burke E, Rymer WZ, Walsh JV: Relative strength of synaptic input from short latency pathways to motor units of defined type in cat medial gastrocnemius. Journal of Neurophysiology, 39(3):447-58, May 1976. 

    Kanda K, *Rymer WZ: An estimate of the secondary spindle receptor afferent contribution to the stretch reflex in extensor muscles of the decerebrate cat. Journal of Physiology, 264(1)63-87, 1977 Jan, (*principal author). 

    Walsh JV, Burke RE, Rymer WZ, Tsairis P: The effects of compensatory hypertrophy studied in individual motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 41(2): 496-508, 1978 Mar. 

    Rymer WZ, Houk JC, Crago PE: Mechanisms of the clasp-knife reflex studied in an animal model. Experimental Brain Research, 37(1): 93-113, 1979 Sep. 

    Houk JC, Crago PE, Rymer WZ: Tendon Organ Transduction of Muscle Force. In Desmedt JE (ed): New Developments on Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Basel: Karger, 1980, p. 33-43. 

    Rymer WZ, D'Almeida A: Joint position sense: The effects of muscle contraction. Brain, 103(1):1-22, 1980 Mar.. 
    Post EM, Rymer WZ: Relations between intrafusal and extrafusal activity in triceps surae muscles of the decerebrate cat: evidence for beta action. Journal of Neurophysiology, 44(2): 383-404, 1980 Aug. 

    Houk JC, Rymer WZ, Crago PE: Dependence of dynamic response of spindle receptors on muscle length and velocity. Journal of Neurophysiology. 46(1): 143-66, 1981 Jul. 

    Rymer WZ, Hasan Z.: Absence of force-feedback in soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat. Experimental Brain Research, 44(1):101-12, 1981 

    Rymer WZ, Post EM, Edwards FR: Functional roles of fusimotor and skeletal neurons studied in the decerebrate cat. In: Taylor A. and Prochazka A (ed): Muscle Receptors and Movement. New York: Oxford Press, 1981 p. 163-177. 

    Houk JC, Rymer WZ, Crago PE: Nature Of The Dynamic Response And Its Relation To The High Sensitivity Of Muscle Spindles To Small Changes In Length. In: Taylor A and Prochazka A (ed): Muscle Receptors and Movement. New York: Oxford Press, 1981. 

    Houk JC, Crago PE, Rymer WZ: Function of the spindle dynamic response in stiffness regulation - a predictive mechanism provided by non-linear feedback. In: Taylor A and Prochazka A (ed): Muscle Receptors and Movement. New York: Oxford Press, 1981, p. 299-309 

    Houk JC, Rymer WZ: Neural Control of Muscle Length and Tension. In Brooks VB (ed): Handbook of Physiology: The Nervous System II : Motor Control. Baltimore: American Physiological Society, distributed by William & Wilkins, 1981, p. 257-323, 

    Rymer WZ , Hasan Z: Prolonged time course for vibratory suppression of the stretch reflex. Experimental Brain Research, 44(1):101-112, 1981. 

    Tang A and Rymer WZ: Abnormal force-EMG relations in paretic limbs of hemiparetic human subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurger & Psychiatry, 44(1):690-698, 1981. 

    Cordo PJ, Rymer WZ: Contributions of motor unit recruitment and rate modulation to compensation for muscle yield. Journal of Neurophysiology, 47(5): 797-809, 1982 May 

    Cordo PJ, Rymer, WZ: Motor unit activation patterns in lengthening and isometric contractions of cat hindlimb extensors. Journal of Neurophysiology, 47(5): 782-796, 1982 May. 

    Crago PE, Houk JC, Rymer WZ: Sampling of total muscle force by tendon organs. Journal of Neurophysiology, 47(13): 1069-1083, 1982 Jun. 

    Cleland CL, Rymer WZ, Edwards FR: Force sensitive neurons in the spinal cord of cat. Science, 217(4560): 652-5, 1982 Jun. 

    Binder M, Houk JC, Nichols TR, Rymer WZ, Stuart DG: Properties and segmental actions of mammalian muscle receptors: an update. Federation Proceedings, 41(13): 2907-2918, 1982 Nov. 

    Buahin KG and Rymer WZ: Bak instruments Dis 1 window spike discriminator. Neuroscience Methods, 10: 93-96, 1983. 

    Rymer WZ: Muscle afferent contributions to the regulation of muscle contraction. In Willis WM (ed): The Clinical Neurosciences: Section V, Neurobiology, New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1983, p. 435-470. 

    Rymer WZ : Spinal mechanisms for the control muscle length and tension. In Davidoff R (ed): Handbook of the Spinal Cord, New York, Marcel Dekker, 1984, p. 609-646 

    Grill S, Rymer WZ: Reflex Consequences of Muscle Afferent Input to Beta And Gamma Motoneurons. In Boyd IA, Gladden MN (ed). The Muscle Spindle, New York: Stockton Press, 1985, p. 303-308. 

    Grill S, Rymer WZ: Reflex actions of muscle afferents on fusimotor innervation. Experimental Brain Research, 59(2): 282-95, 1985. 

    Rymer WZ: A Review of "Muscles, Reflex, Locomotion" by T. McMahon. Journal of Biology, 60: 88-89, 1985. 

    Rymer WZ, Powers RK: Disturbance of motoneuron regulation in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia News, 1985 Jun 

    Carp J, Rymer WZ: Enhancement by serotonin of tonic vibration and stretch reflexes in the decebrate cat Experimental Brain Research, 62(1): 111-22, 1986. 

    Stuart G, Rymer WZ, Schotland J: Characteristics of reflex excitation evoked in close synergist muscles by muscle vibration: Experimental Brain Research, 65(1):1-8, 1986. 

    Grill SE, Rymer WZ: Beta-contributions to fusimotor action in triceps surae muscles of decerebrated cats. Journal of Neurophysiology. 57(2):574-95, 1987, Feb. 

    Buchanan TG, Almdale DP, Lewis JL, Rymer WZ: Characteristics of synergic relations during isometric contractions of human elbow muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology, 56(5):1225-41, 1986 Nov. 

    Kirsch R, Rymer WZ: Neural compensation for muscular fatigue: Evidence for significant force regulation in man. Journal of Neurophysiology, 57(6): 1893-1910, 1987 Jun. 

    Rymer WZ, Powers RK: Mechanisms of muscular weakness in spinal cord injury. Comprehensive Therapy, 13(7) 3 -7 1987 Jul. 

    Lee WA, Boughton A, Rymer WZ: Absence of stretch reflex gain enhancement in voluntarily activated spastic muscle. Experimental Neurology, 98(2): 317-335, 1987 Nov. 

    Powers RK, Marder-Meyer J, Rymer WZ: Quantitative relations between hypertonia and stretch reflex threshold in spastic hemiparesis, Annals of Neurology, 25(1): 115-124, 1988 Feb. 

    Hayward L, Breitbach D, Rymer WZ: Increased Inhibitory effects on close synergists during fatigue in the decerebrate cat. Brain Research, 440(1):199-203, 1988 Feb 2. 

    Powers RK, Rymer WZ: Effects of acute dorsal spinal hemisection on motoneuron discharge in the medial gastrocnemius of the decerebrate cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 59(5): 1540-56, 1988 May. 

    Blaschak MJ, Powers, RK, Rymer WZ: Disturbances of motor output in a cat hindlimb muscle following acute dorsal hemisection of the spinal cord. Experimental Brain Research, 71(2): 377-387, 1988. 

    Rymer WZ, Powers RK: Pathophysiology of muscular hypertonia in spasticity. Neurosurgery: State of the Art Reviews 4(2): 291-301, 1989. 

    Schotland JL, Lee WA, Rymer WZ: Wipe and flexion withdrawal reflexes display different EMG patterns prior to movement onset in the spinalized frog. Experimental Brain Research, 78(3): 649-53, 1989. 

    Powers RD, Campbell DL, Rymer WZ: Stretch reflex dynamics in spastic elbow flexor muscles Annals of Neurology, 25(1):32-42, 1989 Jan. 

    Bourbonnais D, Vanden Noven S, Carey K, Rymer WZ: Abnormal spatial patterns of elbow muscle activation in hemiparetic human subjects, Brain, 102(1):85-102, 1989 Feb 

    Katz RT, Rymer WZ: Spastic hypertonia: mechanisms and measurement. Archives Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 70(2): 144-155, 1989 Feb. 

    Powers RK, Vanden Noven S, Rymer WZ: Evidence of shared, direct input to motoneurons supplying synergist muscles in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 102(1):76-81, 1989 Jul 17 

    Buchanan TS, Rovai G, Rymer WZ: Strategies for muscle activation during isometric torque generation at the human elbow. Journal of Neurophysiology, 62(6): 1201-1212, 1989 Dec. 

    Cleland, C.L, Rymer, W.Z.: Neural mechanisms underlying the clasp-knife reflex in the cat. I. Characteristics of the reflex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 64(4): 1303-1318, 1990 Oct. 

    Cleland CL, Hayward L, Rymer WZ: Neural mechanisms underlying the clasp-knife reflex in the cat. II. Stretch sensitive muscular free nerve endings. Journal of Neurophysiology, 64(4): 1319-1330, 1990 Oct. 

    Arber S, Boskov D, Rymer WZ: Effects of CO2 and helium neon laser irradiation on rat sciatic nerve in vitro. Progress In Biomedical Optics SPIE, 1200: 196-204, 1990. 

    Wesselmann U, Rymer WZ, Lin, S: Effects of pulsed infrared lasers on neural conduction and axoplasmic transport in sensory nerves. Progress In Biomedical Optics SPIE, 1200: 3198-3333, 1990. 

    Lin S, Wesselmann U, Rymer WZ: Pulsed Laser irradiation Effects on the distribution of conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve of the rat. Progress In Biomedical Optics SPIE, 1200: 334-342, 1990. 

    Rymer WZ: Therapeutic Implications of non-ablative laser application in Neurosurgery: future possibilities. Progress In Biomedical Optics SPIE, 1200: 343-348, 1990. 

    Wesselmann U, Lin SF, Rymer WZ: Effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation on neural impulse propagation: I. Spinal cord. Physiological Chemistry, Physics & Medicine NMR, 23(2): 67-80, 1991. 

    Wesselmann, U., Lin, S.F., Rymer, W.Z.: Effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation on neural impulse propagation: II. Dorsal roots and peripheral nerves, Physiological Chemistry, Physics & Medicine NMR, 23(2): 81-100, 1991. 

    Wesselmann U, Lin, SF, Rymer WZ: Selective decrease of small sensory neurons in lumbar dorsal root ganglia labeled with horseradish peroxidase after ND:YAG laser irradiation of the tibial nerve in the rat. Experimental Neurology, 111(2): 251-262, 1991 Feb. 

    Hayward L, Wesselmann U, Rymer WZ: Effects of muscle fatigue on mechanically sensitive afferents of slow conduction velocity in the cat triceps surae. Journal of Neurophysiology, 65(2): 360-370, 1991 Feb. 

    Carp JS, Powers RK, Rymer WZ: Alterations in motoneuron properties induced by acute dorsal spinal hemisection in the decebrate cat. Experimental Brain Research 83(3): 539-48, 1991. 

    Lin D, Rymer WZ: A quantitative analysis of pendular motion of the lower leg in spastic human subjects. IEEE, Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 38(9): 906-918, 1991 Sep 

    Rymer WZ: The Neurophysiologic Basis of Spastic Muscle Hypertonia, In Sussman MD (ed): The Diplegic Child, Park Ridge, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1992, p. 21-29 

    Houk JC, Rymer WZ, Crago PE: Responses of Muscle Spindle Receptors to Transitions in Stretch Velocity, In Jami L, Peirrot-Deseilligny E, Zytnicki D (ed): Muscle Afferents and Spinal Control of Movement., Paris: College de France, 1992, p. 53-61, 

    Heckman CJ, Miller JF, Munson M, Rymer WZ: Differences between steady-state and transient post-synaptic potentials elicted by stimulation of the sural nerve, Experimental Brain Research, 167-170, 1992. 

    Rymer WZ: Spinal Cord Injury Physiology and Transplantation, In Sei FI (ed) Advances in Neurology: Neual Injury and Regeneration, Vol. 59, New York: Raven Press, 1992, p. 157-162 

    Katz RT, Rovai G, Brait C, Rymer WZ: Objective quantification of spastic hypertonia: correlation with clinical findings. Archives Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 73 (4): 339-347, 1992 Apr. 

    Kirsch RF, Rymer WZ: Neural compensation for fatigue-induced changes in muscle stiffness during perturbations of elbow angle in human, Journal of Neurophysiology, 68(2): 449-470, 1992 Aug. 

    Cleland CL., Rymer WZ: Functional properties of spinal interneurons activated by muscular free Nerve dndings and their potential contributions to the clasp-knife reflex, Journal of Neurophysiology, 69(4): 1181-1191, 1993. 

    Lin SF, Wu CH, Rymer WZ: Effects of laser-induced hyperthermia treatment on ionic permeability of myelinated nerve, The Journal of Membrane Biology, 131(2):105-114, 1993 Sep. 

    Wesselmann U, Rymer WZ: Retrograde horseradish peroxidase transport in motor axons after Nd: YAG laser irradiation of the tibial nerve in rats, Experimental Neurology, Vol. 119(2): 147-152, 1993 Feb. 

    Rymer WZ: The Neurophysiologic Basis Of Spastic Muscle Hypertonia, In Spasticity: Pathology and Pathophysiology, 1993, 21-29. 

    Buchanan TS, Moniz MJ, Dewald JPA, Rymer WZ: Estimation of muscle forces about the wrist joint during isometric tasks using an EMG coefficient method, Journal of Biomechanics, 26(4/5), 547-560, 1993. 

    Lin DC, Rymer WZ: Mechanical properties of cat soleus muscle elicited by sequential ramp stretches: Implications for control of muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, 70 (3), 1993 Sep. 

    Thilmann AF, Burke DJ, Rymer WZ (editors): Spasticity: Mechanisms and Management, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993. 

    Dewald JPA, Rymer WZ: Factors Underlying Abnormal Posture and Movement in Spastic Hemiparesis. In Thilmann AF, Burke DJ, Rymer WZ(ed): Spasticity: Mechanisms and Mangement, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993, p. 123-138. 

    Heckman CJ, Miller JF, Munson M, Rymer WZ: Differences between steady-state and transient post-synaptic potentials elicited by stimulation of the sural nerve. Experimental Brain Research, 1993. 

    Heckman CJ, Miller JF, Munson M, Paul KD, Rymer WZ: Reduction in postsynaptic inhibition during maintained electrical stimulation of different nerves in the cat hindlimb. Journal of Neurophysiology, 71(6): 2281-93 June, 1994 Jun. 

    Kirsch RF, Boskov D, WZ Rymer: Muscle stiffness during transient and continuous movements of cat muscle: Perturbation characteristics and physiological relevance. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 41(8) 758-70, 1994 Aug. 

    Rymer WZ, Katz R T: Mechanisms of spastic hypertonia. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: State of the Art Reviews, 8(3) 1994 Oct. 

    Wesselmann U, Kerns JM, Rymer WZ: Laser effects on myelinated and nonmyelinated fibers in the rat peroneal nerve: a quantitative ultrastructural analysis. Experimental Neurology 129(2):257-65, 1994 Oct. 

    Maltenfort MG, Druzinsky RE, Heckman CJ, Rymer WZ: Lower boundaries of motoneuron desynchronization via Renshaw interneurons. In Cowan JD, Tesauro G, Alspector J (ed) Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 6 San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman, 1994, p. 535-542. 

    Miller, J.F., Paul, K.D., Jiang, B., Rymer, W.Z., Heckman, C.J.: Effect of reversible dorsal cold block on spinal reflexes. Experimental Brain Research, 107(2):205-14, 1995. 

    Lim K-Y, Rymer WZ: Computation methods for improving dstimates of motor unit twitch contraction properties, Muscle & Nerve 18(2):165-74, 1995 Feb 

    Kuiken TA., Childress DS, Rymer WZ: The hyper-reinnervation of rat skeletal muscle. Brain Research, 676(1)::113-23, 1995 Apr 3. 

    Dewald JPA, Pope PS, Given J, Buchanan TS, Rymer WZ: Abnormal muscle coactivation patterns during isometric torque generation at the elbow and shoulder in hemiparetic subjects. Brain. 118(2):495-510, 1995 Apr. 

    Rymer WZ: Spinal mechanisms for control of muscle length and force. Chapter 20, In Conn M (ed): Neuroscience in Medicine, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1995, p. 370 - 397 

    Miller JF, Paul KD, Rymer WZ, Heckman CJ: The 5-HT1B/D agonist CGS 12066 attenuates clasp knife reflex in the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74(1):453-6, 1995 Jul. 

    Given JD, Dewald JP, Rymer WZ: Joint dependent passive stiffness in paretic and contralateral limbs of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 59(3):271-9, 1995 Sep. 

    Gemperline JJ, Allen S, Walk Characteristics of motor unit discharge in subjects with hemiparesis. Muscle & Nerve 1(10):1101-14, 1995 Oct. 

    Rymer WZ, Gemperline JJ: Disturbances Of Motoneuron Discharge in Muscles of Subjects With Hemiparetic Stroke. In Taylor T, Gladden M. (ed): Alpha and Gamma Motor Systems. New York: Plenum Press, 1995, pp. 478-483. 

    Rymer WZ: Commentary on Session 5--CNS Issues: The case for segmental mechanisms, Muscle and Nerve, Suppl 4: 620-628, 1996. 

    Reinkensmeyer DJ, Dewald JPA, Rymer WZ: Robotic devices for physical rehabilitation of stroke patients: fundamental requirements, target therapeutic techniques, and preliminary designs. Technology and Disability, 5: 205-215, 1996 

    Miller JF, Paul KD, Lee RH, Rymer WZ, Heckman CJ: Restoration of extensor excitability in the acute spinal cat by the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Journal of Neurophysiology, 75(2):620-8 1996 Feb. 

    Dewald PA, Given JD, Rymer WZ: Long-lasting reductions of spasticity induced by skin electrical stimulation. IEEE Transaction on Rehabilitation Engineering, 4 (4):231-42, 1996 Dec. 

    Daly JJ, Marsolais EB, Mendell LM, Rymer WZ, Stefanovska A, Wolpaw JR, Kantor C: Therapeutic neural effects of electrical stimulation. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering. 4(4):218-30, 1996 Dec. 

    Krylow AM, and Rymer WZ: Role of intrinsic muscle properties in producing smooth movements. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 44(2): 165-176, 1997 Feb. 

    Sharma L, Pai Y-C, Holtkamp K, and Rymer WZ: Is knee joint proprioception worse in the arthritic knee versus the unaffected knee in unilateral knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis & Rheumatism, 40(8): 1519-1525, 1997 Aug. 

    Rymer WZ: Spasticity: Pathophysiology and implications for measurement. Neurology Report. 21(3): 73-75, 1997 Aug. 

    Pai Y-C, Rymer WZ, Chang RW and Sharma L: Effect of age and osteoarthritis on knee proprioception. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 40(12): 2260-2265, 1997 Dec. 

    Zhang L-Q, Rymer WZ: Simultaneous and nonlinear identification of mechanical and reflex properties of human elbow joint muscles. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 44(12): 1192-1209, 1997 Dec. 

    Rymer WZ, Dewald J, Given J, Beer R: Abnormal Muscle Synergies in Hemiparetic Stroke: Origins and Implications for Movement Control. In Latash ML (ed): Progress in Motor Control, Volume 1: Bernstein's Traditions in Movement Studies. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998, 191-202. 

    Zhang LQ Nuber G, Rymer W.Z. In vivo human knee joint dynamic properties as functions of muscle contraction and joint position. Journal of Biomechanics. 31(1): 71-76, 1998 Jan. 

    Maltenfort MG, Heckman CJ, Rymer WZ: Decorrelating actions of Renshaw interneurons on the firing of motoneurons within a motor nucleus: a simulation study. Journal of Neurophysiology 80(1): 309-323, 1998 Jul. 

    Zhang L, Butler J, Nishida T, Nuber G, Huang H, Rymer WZ: In vivo determination of the direction of rotation and moment-angle relationship of individual elbow muscles. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 120(5): 625-633, 1998, Oct 

    Lin D, Rymer WZ: Damping in reflexively active and areflexive lengthening muscle evaluated with inertial loads. Neurophysiology. 80(6): 3369-3372, 1998 Dec. 

    Reinkensmeyer DJ, Dewald JP, Rymer WZ: Guidance-based quantification of arm impairment following brain injury: a pilot study. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 7(1): 1-11, 1999 Mar. 

    Zhang LQ, Huang H, Sliwa JA, Rymer WZ: System identification of tendon reflex dynamics. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 72(193-203, 1999 Jun 

    Hidler J, Rymer WZ: Mechanisms of clonus in spasticity. IEEE Transactions Rehab Engineering 7(3): 327-340, 1999, Sep. 

    Dewald JP, Beer RF, Given JD, McGuire JR, Rymer WZ: Reorganization of flexion reflexes in the upper extremity of hemiparetic subjects. Muscle & Nerve. 22(9):1209-21, 1999 Sep 

    Beer R, Dewald JPS, Rymer WZ: Disturbances of Voluntary Movement in Stroke: Problems of Planning or Execution? In Binder MD (ed.): Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement. Progress in Brain Research 123, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, 1999, p.455-460. 

    Schmit BD, Dhaher Y, Dewald JPA, Rymer WZ: Reflex torque responses to constant velocity movements in spastic elbow muscles: theoretical analyses and implications for quantification of spasticity. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 27:815-829, 1999 Nov-Dec. 

    Reinkensmeyer DJ, Schmit BD, Rymer WZ: Assessment of active and passive restraint of during guided reaching after chronic brain injury. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 27(6):805-814, 1999 Nov-Dec. 

    Reinkensmeyer DJ, Schmit BD, Rymer WZ: Mechatronic assessment of arm impairment after chronic brain injury. Technology and Health Care. 7(6) 431-435, 1999. 

    Scheidt RA, Rymer WZ: Control strategies for the transition from multijoint to single-joint movements studied using a simple mechanical constraint. Journal of Neurophysiology 83(1) 1-12, 2000 Jan. 

    Lin DC, Rymer WZ: Damping actions of the neuromuscular system with inertial loads: soleaus muscle of the decerebrate cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 83(2): 652-658, 2000 Feb. 

    Schmit BD, Dewald JPA, Rymer WZ: Stretch reflex adaptation in elbow flexors during repeated passive movements in unilateral brain-injured patients. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 81:269-278, 2000 Mar. 

    Beer RF, Dewald JP, Rymer WZ: Deficits in the coordination of multijoint arm movements in patients with hemiparesis: evidence for disturbed control of limb dynamics. Experimental Brain Research. 131(3):305-319, 2000 Apr. 

    Schmit BD, McKenna-Cole A, Rymer WZ: Flexor reflexes in chronic spinal cord injury triggered by imposed ankle rotation. Muscle and Nerve 23(5):793-803, 2000 May. 

    Kamper DG, Rymer WZ: Quantitative features of the stretch response of extrinsic finger muscles in hemiparetic stroke. Muscle and Nerve 23(6): 954-961, 2000 Jun. 

    Zhang SQ, Wang G, Nishida T, Du D, Sliwa JA, Rymer WZ: Hyperactive tendon reflexes in spastic multiple sclerosis: measures and mechanisms of action. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 81(7): 901-909, 2000 Jul. 

    Dhaher YY, Delp SL, Rymer WZ: The use of basis functions in modeling joint articular surfaces: application to the knee joint. Journal of Biomechanics 33(7):901-907, 2000 Jul. 

    Scheidt, RA, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Conditt MA, Rymer WZ, Mussa-Ivaldi FA: Persistence of motor adaptation during constrained, multi-joint, arm movements. Journal of Neurophysiology. 84(2): 853-862, 2000 Aug,. 

    Popescu FC, Rymer WZ: End points of planar reaching movements are disrupted by small force pulses: An evaluation of the hypothesis of equifinality. Journal of Neurophysiology. 84(5): 2670-2679, 2000 Nov. 

    Hidler JM, Rymer WZ, Limit cycle behavior in spasticity: analysis and evaluation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 47(12): 1565-1575, 2000 Dec. 

    Chen D, Theiss RD, Ebersole K, Miller JF, Rymer WZ, Heckman CJ. Spinal interneurons that receive input form muscle afferents are differentially modulated by dorsolateral descending systems. Journal of Neurophysiology. 85(2): 1005-8, 2001 Feb. 

    Kamper DG, Rymer WZ. Impairment of voluntary control of finger motion following stroke: role of inappropriate Muscle & Nerve. 24(5) 673-81, 2001 May 

    Reinkensmeyer DJ, Kahn LE, Averbuch M, McKenna-Cole A, Schmit BD, Rymer WZ. Understanding and treating arm movement impairment after chronic brain injury: progress with the ARM guide. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 37(6): 653-63, 2000, Nov-Dec. 

    Schmit BD, Rymer WZ. Identification of static and dynamic components of reflex sensitivity in spastic elbow flexors using a muscle activation model. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 29(4): 330-9, 2001 April. 

    Lin DC, Rymer WZ. Damping actions of the neuromuscular system with inertial loads: human flexor pollicis longus muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology. 85(3): 1059-66, 2001 Mar. 

    Zhang LQ, Rymer WZ. Reflex and intrinsic changes induced by fatigue of human elbow extensor muscles. Journal of Neurophysiology. 86(3): 1086-94, 2001 Sep. 

    Kamper DG, Schmit BD, Rymer WZ. Effect of muscle biomehanics on the quantification of spasticity. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 29 (12): 1122-1124, 2001 Dec. 

    Knikou M, Rymer W.Z. Effects of changes in hip joint angle on H-reflex excitability in humans. Experimental Brain Research 143:149-159, 2002 

    Schmit BD, Benz EN, Rymer WZ. Reflex mechanisms for motor impairment in spinal cord injury. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology. 508:315-323, 2002. 

    Schmit BD, Benz EN, Rymer WZ. Afferent mechanisms for the reflex response to imposed ankle movement in chronic spinal cord injury. Experimental Brain Research. 145(1):40-49, 2002. 

    Knikou M, Rymer WZ. Hip angle induced modulation of H reflex amplitude, latency and duration in spinal cord injured humans. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2002 Nov; 113(11): 1698-708. 

    Lum P, Reinkensmeyer D, Mahoney R, Rymer WZ, Burgar C. Robotic devices for movement therapy after stroke: current status and challenges to clinical acceptance. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 8(4): 40-53, 2002 Winter. 

    Hidler JM, Harvey RL, Rymer, WZ: Frequency Response Characteristics of Ankle Plantar Flexors in Humans Following Spinal Cord Injury: Relation to the Degree of Spasticity. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 30:969-981, 2002 Mar 

    Knikou M, Rymer WZ. Hip angle induced modulation of H reflex amplitude, latency and duration in spinal cord injured humans. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113 (11):1698-1708, 2002 Nov. 

    Kamper DG, Hornby TG, Rymer WZ. Extrinsic flexor muscles generate concurrent flexion of all three finger joints. Journal of Biomechanics 35(12): 1581-1589, 2002 Dec. 

    Hornby TG, Rymer WZ, Benz EN, Schmit BD. Windup of flexion reflexes in chronic human spinal cord injury: a marker for neuronal plateau potentials? Journal of Neurophysiology, 89(1): 416-426, 2003 Jan. 

    Dhaher YY, Tsoumanis AD, Rymer WZ. Reflex muscle conractions can be elicited by valgus positional perturbations of the human knee. Journal of Biomechanics 3(2): 199-209, 2003 Feb. 

    Kamper DG, Harvey, RL, Suresh S, Rymer WZ. Relative contributions of neural mechanisms versus muscle mechanics in promoting finger extension deficits following stroke. Muscle & Nerve, 28(3) 309-18, Sept. 2003 

    Vaughan tM, Heetderks WJ, Trejo LJ, Rymer WZ, Weinrich M, Moore MM, Kubler A, Dobkin BH, Birbaumer N, Donchin E, Wolpaw EW, Wolpaw JR. Brain-computer interface technology: a review of the Second International Meeting. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering 11(2): 94-1009, 2003 June. 

    Popescu F, Hidler JM, Rymer WZ,. Elbow impedance during goal-directed movements. Experimental Brain Research. 152(1): 17-28, 2003 Sept. 

    Knikou M, Rymer WZ. Static and dynamic changes in body orientation modulate spinal reflex excitability in humans. Experimental Brain Research. 152(4): 466-475, 2003 Oct. 

    Beer RF, Dewald JP, Dawson ML, Rymer, WZ. Target-dependent differences between free and constrained arm movements in chronic hemiparesis. Experimental Brain Research, 156(4) 458-70, 2004 Jun. 

    Xia, R, Rymer WZ. The role of shortening reaction in mediating rigidity in Parkinson's disease. Experimental Brain Research. 156(4): 524-8, 2004 Jun. 

    Zhou P, Rymer WZ. MUAP number estimates in surface EMG: template-matching methods and their performance boundaries. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 32(7) 1007-15, 2004 Jul. 

    Hornby TG, Heckman CJ, Harvey RL, Rymer WZ. Changes in voluntary torque and electromyographic activity following oral baclofen. Muscle Nerve. 30(6): 784-95, 2004 Dec. 

    Li S, Kamper DG, Stevens JA, Rymer WZ, The effect of motor imagery on spinal segmental excitability. Journal of Neuroscience. 24(43): 9674-80, 2004 Oct 27. 

    Zhou P, Rymer WZ. Factors governing the form of the relation between muscle force and the EMG: a simulation study. Journal of Neurophysiology. 92(5): 2878-86, 2004 Nov. 

    Dhaher YY, Tsoumanis AD, Houle TT, Rymer WZ. Neuromuscular reflexes contribute to knee stiffness during valgus loading. Journal of Neurophysiology. 2004 Dec 22. 

    Xia R, Rymer WZ. Reflex reciprocal facilitation of antagonist muscles in spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 43(1): 14-21, 2005 Jan. 

    Zhou P, Rymer WZ. MUAP number estimates in surface EMG: template-matching methods and their performance boundaries. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 32(7) 1007-15, 2004 Jul. 

    Li S, Stevens JA, Kamper DG, Rymer WZ. The movement-specific effect of motor imagery on the premotor time. Motor Control; 9(2): 119-28, 2005 April 

    Dhaher YY, Tsoumanis AD, Houle TT, Rymer WZ. Neuromuscular reflexes contribute to knee stiffness during valgus loading. J. Neurophysiology; 93(5):2698-709, 2005 May. 

    Suresh N, Ellis MD, Moore J, Heckman CJ, Rymer WZ. Excitatory synaptic potentials in spastic human motoneurons have a short rise-time. Muscle & Nerve; 32(1): 99-103, 2005 Jul. 

    Rymer WZ. Response to "Training and retention of rehabilitation researchers"[comment] Amer. J. Phys. Med & Rehab. 84(12):976-9, 2005 Dec. 

    Knikou M, Kay E & Rymer WZ. Modulation of flexion reflex induced by hip angle changes in human spinal cord injury. Experimental Brain Research, 168(4): 577-586, 2006 Jan. 

    Li S, Kamper DG, Rymer WZ. Effects of changing wrist positions on finger flexor hypertonia in stroke survivors. Muscle & Nerve, 2006, Feb. 

    Mirbagheri MM, AliBiglou L, Thajchayapong M, Lilaonitkul T, Rymer WZ. Comparison of neuromuscular abnormalities between upper and lower extremities in hemiparetic stroke. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2006:1:303-6 

    Kahn LE, Zygman ML, Rymer WZ, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study. J Neuroeng Rehabil 2006, Jun 21:3:12. 

    Kahn LE, Lum PS, Rymer WZ, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Robot-assisted movement training for the stroke impaired arm: Does it matter what the robot does? J. Rehabil Res Dev. 2006, aug-Sep, 43(5): 619-30. Review 

    Kamper DG, Fischer HC, Cruz EG, Rymer WZ. Weakness is the primary contributor to finger impairment in chronic stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Sep; 87(9): 1262-9. 

    Xia R, Markopoulou K, Puumala SE, Rymer WZ. A comparison of the effects of imposed extension and flexion movements on Parkinsonian rigidity. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Oct; 117(10): 2302-7 Epub 2006 Aug 21 

    Mirbagheri MM, Tsao C, Rymer WZ. Recovery of arm movement after stroke. Conf Proc IEEE, Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007; 2007: 5370-2. 

    Kutch JJ, Suresh NL, Bloch AM, Rymr WZ. Analysis of the effects of firing rate and synchronization on spike-triggered averaging of multidirectional motor unit torque. J. Comput Neurosci. 2007 Jun; 22(3): 347-61, Epub 2007 Mar 22. 

    Mahksous M, Rowles DM, Rymer WZ, Bankard J, Nam EK, Chen D, Lin E. Periodically relieving ischial sitting load to decrease the risk of pressure ulcers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Jul; 88(7): 862-70. 

    Mirbagheri MM, Settle K, Harvey R, Rymer WZ. Neuromuscular abnormalities associated with spasticity of upper extremity muscles in hemiparetic stroke. J. Neurophysiol. 2007 Aug; 98(2): 629-37. Epub 2007, May 30. 

    Knikou M, Schmiy BD, Chaudhuri D, Kay E, Rymer WZ. Soleus H-reflex excitability changes in response to sinusoidal hip stretches in the injured human spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Aug 9; 423(1): 18-2e. Epub 2007 June 29. 

    Zhou P, Suresh NL, Rymer WZ. Model based sensitivity analysis of EMG-force relation with respect to motor unit properties: applications to muscle paresis in stroke. Ann Biomed Eng. 2007 Sep; 35(9): 1521-31. Epub 2007 May 26. 

    Makhsous M, Lim D, Hendrix R, Bankard J, Rymer WZ, Lin F. Finite element analysis for evaluation of pressure ulcer on the buttock: development and validation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst. Rehabil Eng. 2007 Dec; 15(4): 517-25. 

    Mirbagheri MM, AliBiglou L, Thajchayapong M, Rymer WZ. Muscle and reflex changes with varying joint angle in hemiparetic stroke. J. Neuroeng Rehabil. 2008 Feb 27; 5(1):6 [Epub ahead of print] 

    Mirbahgeri MM, Tsao CC, Rymer WZ. Changes of elbow kinematics and kinetics during 1 year after stroke. Muscle & Nerve. 2008 Mar; 37(3): 387-95 (in press). 

    Gerachshenko T, Rymer WZ, Stinear JW. Abnormal corticomotor excitability assessed in biceps brachii preceding pronator contraction post-stroke. Clin Neurophysiol, 2008 Mar; 119(3): 683-92. Epub 2007 Dec 27.


    Graduate Students, (past) Graduated

    P. Cordo, Ph.D. (PHYSIOL) 1979 
    A. Tang, MS (BME) 1980 
    J. McNicol, MS (BME) 1980 
    D. Almdale, MS (BME) 1981 
    A. Rivera, MS (BME) 1981 
    C. Cleland, Ph.D. (Neuroscience) 1984 
    S. Grill, Ph.D. (Neuroscience) 1985 
    T. Buchanan, Ph.D. (Applied Mech.) 1985 
    K. Buahin, Ph.D., (Neuroscience) 1986 
    M.J. Blaschak, Ph.D. (BME) 1986 
    D. Breitbach, MS, (Neuroscience) 1987 
    M. Lin, MS (BME) 1988 
    T. Kuiken, M.D., Ph.D (BME) 1989 
    R. Kirsch, Ph.D. (BME) 1990 
    L. Hayward, Ph.D. (PHY) 1990 
    D. Boskov, Ph.D. (BME) 1990 
    J. Schotland, Ph.D. (Neuroscience) 1990 
    G. Carlson, MS (BME) 1991 
    S. Petronis, MS (ME) 1991 
    K.Y. Lim, MS (BME) 1991 
    J. Gemperline, Ph.D. (BME) 1993 
    M. Maltenfort , MA (BME) 1995 
    D. Lin, Ph.D. (BME) 1997 
    R. Beer, Ph.D. (BME) 1997 
    R. Scheidt, Ph.D. (BME) 1999 
    R. Samadani, Ph.D. (ME) 1999 
    F. Popescu, MS (ME) 2000 
    A. Ricamato (EE) 2000 
    J. Hidler, MS (BME) 2001 
    Ping Zhou (BME) 2005 
    Leonard Kahn (BME) 2005

    Current Graduate Students To Graduate

    Carren Loredo (NUIN) 2006

    Post Doctoral Fellows

    A. D'Almeida , M.D. 1976-78 Academic Neurosurgeon, Rio De Janeiro 
    E.M. Post, M.D. 1976-78 Neurosurgeon, New Jersey 
    F.R. Edwards, Ph.D. 1981-82 Prof. of Anatomy, U. of Melbourne 
    E. Gregory, Ph.D. 1982-83 Research Professor, Monash U. 
    T. Rainey, Ph.D. 1982-88 Prof., Ohio U. 
    W. Lee, Ph.D. 1981-84 Assoc. Prof., PT Programs NUMS 
    R. Powers, Ph.D. 1982-87 Assoc. Prof, U. of Washington 
    W.A. Adair, M.D. 1984-85 Dir. of Rehab., Christ Hospital 
    J. Carp, Ph.D. 1984-87 Sr. Scientist, Wadsworth Labs, NY 
    D. Bourbonnais, Ph.D. 1985-87 Assoc. Prof., U. of Montreal 
    S. VanDen Noven, Ph.D. 1985-87 Assist. Prof., Univ of Hong Kong 
    T. Buchanan, Ph.D. 1986-89 Assoc. Prof., U. of Delaware 
    J. Ruge, M.D. 1986-87 Assoc. Prof., U. of Illinois/ Neurosurgery 
    U. Wesselman, M.D.,Ph.D 1987-89 Asst. Prof. Neurology, Johns Hopkins 
    C.J. Heckman, Ph.D. 1988-90 Assoc. Prof., Physiology NUMS 
    N. Suresh, Ph.D. 1989-90 Fellow PM & R/ RIC (returned after extended leave) 
    J. Given, Ph.D. 1990-94 Research Scientist, Canadian National Labs, Ottawa 
    R. Druzinsky, Ph.D 1990-94 Assistant Governors State U. Illinois 
    L.- Q. Zhang, Ph.D. 1991-93 Asst. Prof., NUMS 
    T. Kuiken, M.D., Ph.D. 1991-92 Asst. Prof., NUMS 
    M. Lin, Ph.D. 1991-92 Asst. Prof., Vanderbilt U. 
    J. McGuire, M.D. 1991-92 ` Asst. Prof., Med. Col. of WI 
    Bian Jiang, Ph.D. 1992-94 Assoc. Prof., IL Col. of Osteopathy 
    J. Dewald, P.T., Ph.D. 1992-94 Asst. Professor, NUMS PT Programs, and 
    D.F. Chen, Ph.D. 1993-97 Asst. Prof., U. of Kansas 
    D. Reinkensmeyer, Ph.D. 1994-1998 Assistant Professor, UC Irvine 
    B. Schmidt, Ph.D. 1995-present Assistant Professor, NUMS, PM & R 
    C. Raasch, Ph.D. 1996-1998 Assistant Professor (adj), Arizona State U 
    Y. Dhaher, Ph.D. 1997-2001 Research Assistant Professor, NUMS 
    D Kamper Ph.D. 1996-2001 Research Assistant Professor, NUMS; Assistant Professor, IIT 
    D Roberson Ph.D. 1998-1999 Assistant Professor, U of Texas, San Antonio 
    R. Xia 1998-2003 Assistant Professor, U. of Nebraska Med. Center 
    J. Stevens 1999-2002 Assistant Professor, College of William & Mary 
    M. Knikou 1999-2002 Assistant Professor, CUNY, College of Staten Island 
    T.G. Hornby 2000-2002 Research Assistant Professor, NUMS; Clinical Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of IL at Chicago 
    M. Mirbagheri 2001-2002 Research Assistant Professor, NUMS 
    S. Li 2002-2004 Assistant Professor, U. of Montana 
    J. Towles 2003-present 
    Tatyiana Gerachshenko 2005-present 
    Carol Mottram 2005-present 
    Jeff Nessler 2005-present 
    Citlali Lopez-Ortiz 2005-present 
    Ying-Chih Wang 2006-present

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