Reference: K.R.S. Holzbaur et al. / Journal of Biomechanics 40 (2007) 742–749
We measure the size and shape of muscles, both in the anatomy lab and using medical imaging techniques. Muscle parameters such as volume, cross-sectional area, and fiber length vary a great deal among muscles in the arm. Quantifying these parameters provides information regarding the relative force-generating capabilities of different muscles.
FIGURE: Volume fractions for upper limb muscles. Muscles are grouped by anatomical region (shoulder, elbow and forearm, and wrist) and ordered within each group from largest volume fraction to smallest. The bar for each muscle represents the mean volume fraction with error bars representing one standard deviation for 10 subjects.