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Applied Research in Muscular Simulation

Wendy Murray

Wendy Murray, Ph.D.

Principal Investigator
Phone: (312) 238-6965
Rm#: RIC 1408 B
Web Page


Scientific Education

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN. BS, 1990, Mathematics
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL . MS, 1992, Biomedical Eng
Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. PhD, 1997, Biomedical Eng

Postions and Honors

2007-present: Assistant Professor, Depts. of Biomedical Engineering and PM&R, Northwestern University
2007-present: Biomedical Engineeer, Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital
2004-2006: Consulting Assistant Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University
2000-2006: Biomedical Engineer, Rehabilitation R&D Center, VA Palo Alto Health Care System
1999-2000: NIDRR Mary Switzer Post-Doctoral Fellow, Case Western Reserve University
1997-1999: Research Associate, Case Western Reserve University


2005: Finalist, American Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award
2001: Finalist, International Society of Biomechanics Clinical Biomechanics Award
1999-2001: Spinal Cord Research Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowship, PVA
1999-2000: NIDRR Mary Switzer Memorial Rehabilitation Research Post-Doctoral Fellowship
1990: Cabell Fellowship, Northwestern University
1990: Phi Beta Kappa

Selected Peer Reviewed Publications

  1. Murray, W. M., Delp, S. L., and Buchanan, T. S. Variation of muscle moment arms with elbow and forearm position. J Biomech, 28:513-525, 1995.
  2. Murray, W. M., Arnold, A. S., Salinas, S., Durbhakula, M. M., Buchanan, T. S., and Delp, S. L. Building biomechanical models based on medical image data: An assessment of model accuracy. Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention - MICCAI ‘98 Wells, W. M., Colchester, A., and Delp, S, (Eds.), Springer:Berlin, pp. 539-549, 1998.
  3. Murray, W. M., Buchanan, T. S., and Delp, S. L. The isometric functional capacity of muscles that cross the elbow. J Biomech, 33:943-952, 2000.
  4. Delp, S. L., Suranarayanan, S., Murray, W. M., Uhlir, J., Triolo, R. J. Architecture of the rectus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae. J Biomech, 34:371-375, 2001.
  5. Memberg, W. D., Murray, W. M., Ringleb, S. I., and Kilgore, K. L., and Snyder, S. A. A transducer to measure elbow extension moments. Clin Biomech, 16:918-920, 2001.
  6. Murray, W. M., Buchanan, T. S., and Delp, S. L. Scaling of peak moment arms of elbow muscles with dimensions of the upper extremity. J Biomech, 35:19-26, 2002.
  7. Johanson, M. E. and Murray, W. M. The unoperated hand: The role of passive forces in hand function after tetraplegia. Hand Clin, 18:391-398, 2002.
  8. Murray, W. M., Bryden, A. M., Kilgore, K. L., and Keith, M. W. The influence of elbow position on wrist range of motion following the brachioradialis to extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon transfer. J Bone Jt Surg, 84-A:2203-2210, 2002.
  9. Saul, K. R., Murray, W. M., Hentz, V. R., and Delp, S. L. Biomechanics of the Steindler flexorplasty surgery: A computer simulation. J Hand Surg, 28A:979-986, 2003.
  10. Smaby, N., Johanson, M. E., Baker, B., Kenney, D., Murray, W. M., and Hentz, V. R. Identification of key pinch forces required to complete functional tasks. J Rehabil Res Dev, 41:215-224, 2004.
  11. Towles, J. D., Murray, W. M., Hentz, V. R. How joint stabilization and pulley release affect the thumb-tip force produced by the long flexor during key pinch: A cadaver study. J Hand Surg, 29:273-82, 2004.
  12. Lieber, R. L., Murray, W. M., Clark, D. L., Hentz, V. R., and Fridén, J. Biomechanical properties of the brachioradialis muscle: Implications for surgical tendon transfer. J Hand Surg, 30:273-82, 2005.
  13. Holzbaur, K. R. S., Murray, W. M., and Delp, S. L. A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control. Ann Biomed Eng 33:829-40, 2005.
  14. Johanson, M. E., Smaby, N., Hentz, V. R, and Murray, W. M. Reduced activation in transferred brachioradialis muscles to restore lateral pinch in tetraplegia. J Hand Surg, 31:747-53, 2006.
  15. Murray, W. M., Hentz, V. R., Fridén, J., Lieber, R.L. Variability in surgical technique for brachioradialis tendon transfer. Evidence and implications. J Bone Jt Surg, 88:2009-2016, 2006.
  16. Holzbaur, K. R. S., Murray, W. M., Gold, G. E., and Delp, S. L. Upper limb muscle volumes in adult subjects. J Biomech, 40:742-9, 2007.
  17. Holzbaur, K. R. S., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E., and Murray, W. M. Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles. J Biomech, 40:2442-2449, 2007.
  18. Towles, J. D., Hentz, V. R., and Murray, W. M. Use of intrinsic thumb muscles may help to improve lateral pinch function restored by tendon transfer. Clin Biomech, 23:387-94, 2008.
  19. LaRoque, E. S., Murray, W. M., Langley, S., Hariri, S., Levine, B. P., Ladd, A. L. Muscle moment arms in the first dorsal extensor compartment after radius malunion: A cadaver study. J Bone Joint Surg, 90:1979-87, 2008.

Research Support

Ongoing Research Support

84054: 10/01/08 – 09/30/10
Neilsen Foundation Biomechanical & Neural Assessments of Elbow Extension Tendon Transfers

Biomechanical studies suggest that people with posterior deltoid to triceps tendon transfers are much weaker than one would expect based on muscle cross-sectional area. We are studying how the brain and the spinal cord adapt to the fact that muscle function has been surgically altered. We expect to find that the nervous system is limiting use of the transferred muscle in its new function and we expect this will help us develop rehabilitation strategies to improve outcomes.

Role: PI &nbsp&nbsp&nbsp&nbsp(co-PI: Eric Perreault, Ph.D. and Jim Stinear, Ph.D.)

A4069R: 07/01/07 – 06/30/10
Department of Veterans Affairs/RR&D Service Multi-center Trial to Improve Grasp in Tetraplegia

This multi-center study aims to demonstrate the significance of surgical attachment length for post-operative muscle function following tendon transfer. This study will exploit existing variability in surgical approach among 7 surgeons to test if surgical technique is influencing outcomes.

Role: co-PI (PI: V. R. Hentz, M.D.)

5 R01 HD46774: 07/15/04 – 04/30/09
NIH/NICHHD Biomechanical Modeling of Tendon Transfer in Tetraplegia

The major goals of this project are to develop better biomechanical models for predicting the outcome of the brachioradialis-to-flexor-pollicis-longus tendon transfer, a procedure that restores lateral pinch following tetraplegia.

Role: PI

Completed Research Support (past 3 years)

A4270X: 04/01/06 - 09/30/08
Dept. of Veterans Affairs/RR&D Service A Model-Based Approach to Multifunction Artificial Hand Control

The primary objective of this research is to implement a 3D, computer graphics based model of the upper extremity to develop a control system for a multifunction artificial hand.

Role: PI (co-PI: R. Weir, Ph.D.)

A3741R: 04/01/05 – 03/31/08
Dept. of Veterans Affairs/RR&D Service Muscle-Tendon Adaptation following Tendon Transfer Surgery

The major goals of this study are to compare muscle architecture in subjects with brachioradialis tendon transfers to subjects with spinal cord injury and non-impaired subjects and to characterize neural activation in subjects with brachioradialis tendon transfers.

Role: PI (co-PI: V. R. Hentz, M.D.)

B2785R: 05/01/02 - 04/30/05
Dept. of Veterans Affairs/RR&D Service Functional Restoration of Grasp in Quadriplegia

The project aims to establish specific, procedural guidelines for determining the length at which donor muscles in tendon transfer surgeries should be set to best restore hand function for individuals with spinal cord injury. Biomechanical computer simulations of selected tendon transfers, quantification of surgical technique using a laser diffraction device to measure sarcomere lengths intraoperatively, and post-operative measurements of hand impairment and function will be utilized.

Role: PI(co-PI: V. R. Hentz, M.D.)


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